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Frank Hertz Experiment

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Frank Hertz Experiment
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Approx. Rs 1.25 Lakh / PieceGet Latest Price

Product Details:
Minimum Order Quantity1 Piece
Dimensions600 mm X 460 mm X 430 mm
Total power consumptionLess Than 150W
Weight for Rider118 mg
ModelFH-3001
PowerElectronic
BrandV-Tech
ColorGrey

Introduction

From the early spectroscopic work it is clear that atoms emitted radiation at discrete frequencies; from Bohr’s model, the frequency of the radiation v is related to the change of energy levels through DE=hn. It is then to be expected that transfer of energy to atomic electrons by any mechanism should always be in discrete amounts. One such mechanism of energy transfer is through inelastic scattering of low-energy electrons.

Frank and Hertz in 1914 set out to verify these

considerations.

(i) lt is possible to excite atoms by low energy electron bombardment.

(ii) The energy transferred from electrons to the atoms always had discrete values.

(iii) The values so obtained for the energy levels were in agreement with spectroscopic results.

Thus the existence of atomic energy levels put forward by Bohr can be proved directly. It is a very important experiment and can be performed in any college or University level laboratory.

Operating Principle

The Frank-Hertz tube in this instrument is a tetrode filled with the v a p o u r o f t h e

experimental substance. Fig.1 indicates the basic scheme of experiment. The electrons emitted by fi l a m e n t c a n b e a c c e l e ra t e d b y t h e potential V between G2K

the cathode and the grid G . The grid G, helps 2 in minimising space charge effects. The grids are wire mesh and allow the electrons to pass through. The plate A is maintained at a potential slightly negative with respect to the grid G . This helps in making the dips in the plate current 2 more prominent. ln this experiment, the electron current is measured as a function of the voltage V . As the voltage increases, the electron G2K

energy goes up and so the electron can overcome the retarding potential V to reach the plate A. This gives rise to a current in the G2A ammeter, which initially increases. As the voltage further increases, the electron energy reaches the threshold value to excite the atom in its first allowed excited state. In doing so, the electrons loose energy and therefore the number of electrons reaching the plate decreases. This decrease is proportional to the number of inelastic collisions that have occured. When the V G2K is

increased further and reaches a value twice that of the first excitation potential, it is possible for an electron to excite an atom halfway between the grids, loose all its energy, and then gain anew enough energy to excite a second dip in the current. The advantage of this type of configuration of the potential is that the current dips are much more pronounced, and it is easy to obtain five fold or even larger multiplicity in the excitation of the first level.Frank-Hertz Experiment Set-up, Model: FH-3001,

consists of the following:

Argon filled tetrode

Filament Power Supply : 2.6~3.4V continuously

variable

Grids Power Supplies

V : 1.3-5 V continuously variable G1K

V : 1.3 - 12V continuously variable G2K

V : 0 - 95V continuously variable G2K

All the power supplies are highly stabilised and output

voltages can be read on 3 V2 digit, 7 segment LED DPM

with autopolarity and decimal indication through a

selector switch.

Saw tooth waveform for CRO display

Scanning Voltage : 0-80V

Scanning Frequency : 115±20Hz

Multirange Digital Ammeter

Display : 3½ digit 7 segment LED

Range Multiplier: 10-7 , 10-8 & 10-9

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